Brain abscess syndrome is a disease described primarily in white-tailed deer in which abscesses (enclosed collections of pus) form within the brain. Several species of bacteria can be responsible for these abscesses, but the most common cause is Trueperella pyogenes, formerly known as Arcanobacter pyogenes, and before that as Actinomyces pyogenes and Corynebacterium pyogenes.
Brain abscess syndrome occurs sporadically in North American white-tailed deer, particularly bucks, and results in occasional deaths. This disease occurs naturally and infrequently, so it does not seem to significantly impact the deer or elk populations.
While T. pyogenes can cause abscesses to form in many animal species, particularly ungulates (hooved mammals), brain abscesses due to these bacteria are most common in white– tailed and other deer. The bacteria also commonly cause abscesses in other parts of the body in deer, moose, pronghorn, and wild sheep. While it is rare, humans can contract T. pyogenes if they come in contact with infected deer, though the bacteria is often misidentified.
Brain abscess syndrome probably occurs throughout North America in most of the white-tailed deer population range. In the United States, these abscesses have been observed in white-tailed deer in Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, West Virginia, and Wyoming. Northern Maryland in particular sees a high incidence of BAS, with an annual mortality of around 35% in adult male white-tailed deer. This disease has also been observed in white-tailed deer in Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, and Saskatchewan in Canada. Some studies suggest that brain abscesses may be less common in arid regions due to the bacteria’s inability to survive in dry conditions.
T. pyogenes commonly lives on the skin and gums of deer and causes infection when it enters an open wound. This bacterium is also present in the circulation of all ruminants. Brain abscesses develop in deer when the bacteria enter wounds in the velvet of a buck’s antler, a broken antler, or the pedicle (base of the antler) of a recently shed or damaged antler. After the bacteria enter an antler wound, it can damage the bone of the skull and travel into the brain where the abscess forms. Most cases of brain abscess syndrome occur in October through April in adult antlered males because of normal buck breeding behavior such as antler rubbing, sparring, and shedding, which creates a greater occurrence of open wounds on or near the antler. Females and immature males can also develop brain abscesses, though it is less common.
Deer with brain abscess syndrome may exhibit loss of coordination, apparent blindness, lack of fear, aggression, weakness, depression, and emaciation. Swollen eyes, broken antlers, swollen joints, and lameness may also be observed. Pus may be present in the eye sockets and pedicles.
Abscesses can be observed in the brain at necropsy. The bacteria must be isolated and identified in the laboratory in order to determine the species of bacteria responsible for abscess formation.
Brain abscesses occur sporadically in wild deer. The disease is well advanced when the external signs are present, so treatment is usually not attempted or
The bacteria responsible for brain abscess formation occur naturally on the skin of deer, and infection occurs as a result of natural breeding behavior or other trauma, meaning prevention and control is not feasible.If a hunter harvests a deer with pus in the eye sockets or pedicles, it likely has brain abscess syndrome and should be treated carefully to avoid contracting T. pyogenes. Deer with BAS are not safe for human consumption because of the possibility of whole body dissemination of the bacteria (also known as septicemia).